Self portrait in gardenHow did the ancient world work? A crucial difference is that they did not use money, and we need to see how  these early societies actually worked. I begin therefore, with a little anthropology and take a brief look at the Trobriand Islands to see how a primitive society functioned.


Trobriand _women necklaces pl19The Trobriand Islands.  The Trobriand islands lie in the Western Pacific, 600 miles north east of Australia. During the First World War, a Polish anthropologist visited the islands and began finding out just how these primitive but successful people worked and functioned, uncovering the mysteries of ‘gift exchange’.


The Minoans. The first part of my book deals with societies before the existence of money, where distribution was based on palaces. The most instructive of all the palaces societies are the Minoans, for there are four Minoan palaces, all well excavated, which provide a very useful introduction to life in a Palace society.The decipherment of Minoan Linear B allows us to see into their economy.


PyramidsEgypt. We then move on to ancient Egypt, one of the most successful and long lived societies the world has ever seen. Just how did they achieve this long-lived success? We look  at how they built the pyramids, and at the fascinating palace at Amarna, and see how the workmen used pseudo-money


Dome of the Rock 019The Bible. At the fringes of the Mediterranean, – between the Desert and the sea, there arose the Jewish religion, the source of three of the world’s great religions. Here I sort them out and give the real story behind the evolution of the Jews and the origins of Christianity.


China We then go on to China, which in many ways challenges my basic theory, for it is an Empire that used money but was ruled from palaces.  Here you can read about the mysteries of classical, and indeed modern China and how modern China in many ways follows on from the state that was first established in 220 BC.


661px-Tetradrachm_Athens_480-420BC_MBA_LyonThe Greeks. The big change comes with the Greeks: why are the Greeks so important and what is the secret of their innovation? The answer is money; they invented a new form of exchange based on money, and this enabled a huge leap forward in economic success and brought forth a new type of society, with the invention of democracy and history and the theatre.

Intermezzo. There were other peoples who rose in the Mediterranean in the first millennium BC – the Etruscans, the Phoenicians,  and Tartessos.  How did they rise, and why did they fail?




Venus 692The Romans. The Romans succeeded where the Greeks failed, and produced one of the world’s great civilisations. How do they do it? They were late in discovering how to use money properly, yet they fought Hannibal and won. The Romans have a bad press today, but why were they so successful?


And finally, who am I? Every author has his prejudices and his biases, and you may wish to know who I am and where I come from and what my biases are. Click here for my confessions about my beliefs, and in effect, what this book is all about. Or click here for my thoughts about civilisation, a major underlying theme of this book



On to the Trobriand Islands

16th March 2014, revised 23rd January 2018